Milk of goat is widely represented in the food of people in many countries of the world: the Caucasus, Central Asia and Europe. Many grandmothers in villages of Ukraine also have goats to give it their grandchildren and treat their family with tasty and healthy product.
The chemical composition of goat milk is not inferior to cow and its proteins are more gentle. The study of goat milk showed that there is almost no casein - main allergenic protein in cow milk. Goat milk has more salts of cobalt, a component of vitamin B12, A and D vitamins, which are necessary for children.
Goat milk fats also have its advantages. They consist of essential fatty acids: linoleic and arachidonic, moreover, the concentration of medium-chain fatty acids are increased (caproic, caprylic, capric) – the quantities of them are in three times more in cow milk. This explains the good absorption of fat goat milk and the possibility of products use from it by the reduced activity of enzymes that break down fat. Several studies have demonstrated that the fat of goat milk contains conjugated linoleic acid, which plays an important role in the prevention of obesity, atherosclerosis, some cancers and allergy. Linoleic acid is useful for immunity improving. Amino acid composition of goat milk is also balanced. Amino acids such as lysine and cysteine improve absorption of minerals - calcium, phosphorus, iron, and copper.
Sheep milk contains in one and half times more protein than cow milk (up to 6-7%), it has more A, B1, B12 vitamins. Sheep milk - an important attribute of food of many nations in Europe, Asia and the Middle East. Mostly such milk products as yogurt, kefir, cheese, butter are made from sheep milk. Sheep milk and products from it, as well as goat, milk contains a lot of medium-chain fatty acids: caprylic and capric.
Deer milk, of course, is used in food by people of the North. The chief thing is that it contains a lot of protein - up to 17%, rather thick, has high energy value. This milk also has a lot of fats, so it poorly absorbed in natural form by man, it must be diluted with water.
Camel milk - more salted because of numerous minerals (calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, zinc, phosphorus and sulfur). Its consistency is thicker than cow milk. A number of studies in Israel and the United Arab Emirates have shown the positive effect of camel milk in case of allergic diseases, and the lack of beta-lactoglobulin allows its using in cow milk intolerance. In arid and semi-arid countries people drink fresh camel milk, and also make milk products, such as chal (or shubat). This milk is added to chocolate and tea.
Milk of mares - is white, with a bluish tinge, sweet, because it contains a lot of lactose, and has a little tart taste. This is an important product of the nomadic people of the world. Sometimes the ability of these people for long and difficult hikes was explained by this milk. Aristotle considered it as the most valuable. The chemical composition of mare milk contains the same amount of fat as the human milk, it is low in protein, and has vitamin C in six times more, than in cows. The most famous product of a mare milk is koumiss.
People also use milk of other animals: buffalo, female yak, zebu and other mammals. It is defined casein (cow, goat and sheep) and albumin (mare, deer and donkey) milk by the nature of proteins. If milk of casein orientation, it has nearly 75% and more percent of casein. Albumin milk contains up to 50% of casein. It is supposed that the albumin milk is more valuable to assimilation than casein on the amino acids balance. However, most dairy products are made from casein milk.